Shopping Locally

Food Sustainability: A discussion of the EAT-Lancet report

shopping
locally

Back in our grandparents’ day there were few supermarkets. Everything was brought locally, either from independent stores or directly from the producers. Most meals were cooked from scratch, and enjoyed together around a table without shiny-screened distractions. Perhaps I am painting a somewhat rose-tinted view of the past (which, of course, had its own significant problems), but the principles are true.

Since then, in the name of value and convenience, the modern-day supermarket has risen up and pretty much taken over. Huge behemoths of stores which combine everything under one roof and even under one brand. There is no doubt that they are a handy way to get your shopping done quickly – where else can you drop off your dry cleaning, buy a bunch of flowers and top up your wine rack all in one place?! But are they really as great as they make themselves out to be?

Let’s be honest here: supermarkets are driven by profit – they are not really that interested in your health or wellbeing (nor indeed in their suppliers), so long as they are continuing to grow their bottom line. Their shelves are enticingly stacked high with fresh-looking produce year-round. But where does it come from? So often it is grown thousands of miles away, covered with chemicals or hormones to artificially ripen the produce on its long journey, and of course wrapped in multiple layers of packaging. And who has grown it for us? Are they treated fairly, and do they care about the environment? I am afraid that the answer is frequently no.

And even more worrying is the subconscious tactics that all the big names play to entice you into buying more than you want. Who has gone into the store with a list of 5 essentials, and left with 15 things you didn’t really need? Yep – we’ve all been ‘had’ at some point or another. With the average householder spending £150,000 in supermarkets in their lifetime, the only thing most people spend more on is their home. So despite what the marketing campaigns might say, it is not usually the cheapest option either.

So yes, of course we all need to pop by a supermarket from time to time, but are there ways in which you can shop elsewhere too? Could you consider supporting your local independent retailers and those who trade ethically and sustainable a little more? Or even just be mindful about where and how the food you are buying was produced? This is definitely not as hard, or time-intensive as I used to think it would be. I used to shop in supermarkets all the time, thinking nothing of it. I was mindless about eating, but once I started studying nutritional therapy, I realised that eating smarter starts in your shopping basket. And that starts with the shops themselves.

So as much as I can now, I try to take a leaf out my grandmother’s book. I get my veggies delivered directly from the farm (or from my garden when it’s growing season!), my meat from our local butcher (who is a wealth of fantastic information and advice that no supermarket shelf could ever offer), and fish from our fishmonger. My health, my taste buds and even my wallet have all thanked me for making the change, not to mention how much more pleasurable and sociable an experience it is now to pick up our weekly groceries. Win all round, I think!

Here are some ideas to help embrace local alternatives:

1. Plan ahead. This is the most important and useful tip I can think of for avoiding the supermarkets. You don’t always have to plan every last detail of every meal, but having an outline idea of what you want to cook for the key meals of the week enables you to buy exactly what you need. Do take a look at my meal planning guide for more information on exactly how to do this. Stock up on plenty of store cupboard staples that you can use to bulk out your meals (such as grains, nuts, seeds, legumes, flour, pasta, tinned vegetables, olive oil etc.) and you’ll always have something to eat.

2. Find and discover your local ethnic shops. They can be a real treasure trove for ingredients (and often sell in bulk), and are the best place to get olives, spices, dried beans, delicious dates, fresh herbs and other unusual ingredients. Don’t be afraid to ask for cooking tips while you’re there.

3. Farmers’ markets offer local suppliers the chance to sell their goods and have sprung up all over the country in the last few years. If you’re in London visit IFM.org.uk. Plus, they make a lovely morning out and about.

4. Consider signing up to a weekly or fortnightly organic veggie box delivery. They work out consistently cheaper than buying organic at the supermarket, are fresher, more convenient and encourage you to eat a wider range of produce than you might otherwise do (just think of all those extra nutrients!). Plus most will also now give you the option of adding to your order each week – things like fruit, bread, eggs, milk or even organic meat. Check out:

Abel & Cole : abelandcole.co.uk
Riverford Organic : riverford.co.uk

5. Do you have friends or neighbours that are interested in healthy eating and cooking? How about getting together to make a bulk-buying group? There are some great wholesalers who are more than happy to sell to groups of friends, and if there are a few of you it is much easier to make the minimum order values. As well as getting in your store cupboard staples, these can also be a great way to stock-up on household basics (like eco-friendly laundry detergent, loo rolls and even nappies!) at a far cheaper price than the supermarkets. Check out Suma for more information on food groups: Suma. Do also check out the Bower Collective for natural household products in plastic-free and reusable packaging delivered on repeat to your home. Highly recommended.

6. Direct produce-to-consumer organisations are also springing up, which allow you to order delicious food online (where instead of 25-50% of the retail price going to the producers, they get a far more reasonable70-75%). Apart from this obvious bonus, the food you get is also significantly fresher (as it is only made / picked when the orders are placed), and just like an online supermarket, you can order a wide variety of produce without committing to any sort of subscription. If you’re London based, take a look at FarmDrop.

7. Be creative. Do you live in the countryside? Many farmers will sell meat directly from the farm if you ask them in advance, which can be an incredibly cost effective way to stockpile your freezer with high-quality protein (and next-to-no food miles). Live near the sea? Perhaps there is a wholesale fish market locally which will sell to consumers if you pop along and ask politely. Have a green-fingered friend? Could you persuade them to part with some of their home-grown produce for a few quid or an hour’s help digging?


Food Sustainability: A discussion of the EAT-Lancet report

Food Sustainability: A discussion of the EAT-Lancet report

Food Sustainability:
A discussion of the EAT-Lancet report

I was really interested to read the EAT-Lancet Commission’s ‘Planetary Health Diet’ paper published in January 2019. It led to a 3-part mini-series on my Instagram account, and I was very grateful for the thoughtful comments and discussion that followed. However, I felt that the topic deserved a slightly deeper-dive than is possible through Instagram alone, so have put together this article of some thoughts, extracts and further resources for those of you who are interested in reading more.

Food Sustainability: A discussion of the EAT-Lancet report

I am very aware that this is a complicated and somewhat controversial topic. There have been a lot of opinion pieces and rebuttals of the EAT-Lancet paper, from various sources. It is clearly not the final answer or definitive solution. However, I think food sustainability is still an important and interesting topic – and academic debate is a healthy way to further our collective knowledge and understanding of such complex issues.

[ Before diving into details, here is the link to the original paper: thelancet.com. And here is a useful executive summary and visual guide: eatforum.org/eat-lancet-commission/eat-lancet-commission-summary-report/ ]

What is the EAT-Lancet paper?

A group of scientists from around the world came together to debate, and ultimately try to find consensus, on a suggested global dietary pattern that not only supports human health, but also the health and sustainability of our environment. It is a noble goal, albeit a very challenging one.

On a more personal level, food sustainability and supporting responsible agricultural practices has been something that I have been thinking about for a while now. After all, so many of us want to do our bit for sustainability and be more conscious consumers, but it has often felt rather confusing to know how to go about doing so.

The scale of the problem

The report gives some quite shocking facts and figures, which highlight the scale of the nutritional problems facing our global population, and explain why this direction of research and work is considered quite so urgent.

Worldwide, there are more than 2.1 billion adults who are overweight or obese, and the prevalence of diabetes has almost doubled in the past 30 years. At the same time, however, there are still more than 820 million people who are undernourished, and more than 2 billion people with micronutrient (essential vitamin and mineral) deficiencies.

The report goes on to state “unhealthy diets pose a greater risk to our health and longevity than does unsafe sex, alcohol, drug and tobacco use combined”. Because much of the global population is poorly nourished – whether through undernutrition or overnutrition – the authors therefore suggest that the world’s food intake needs to be urgently transformed towards a more equal and health-supporting dietary pattern.

At the same time as facing these massive nutritional challenges, food production is also having a major impact on the global environment. According to the report, agriculture occupies around 40% of the world’s land, contributes up to 30% of greenhouse gas emissions and uses 70% of our fresh water. More than 30% of world fish stocks are overfished, and misuse of agricultural chemicals has many adverse effects.

Ultimately, our own health depends on the health and sustainability of food production. This report has certainly opened up the conversation, and is perhaps the beginning of a movement towards finding a diet that is both good for us all, and good for the earth.

Food Sustainability: A discussion of the EAT-Lancet report

What does the diet contain?

The EAT-Lancet recommendations encourage a largely plant-based diet, rich in fruits and vegetables, whole grains, pulses and plant oils, with very modest amounts of animal protein – and in particular, it encourages a reduction in red meat (amounting to a small portion no more than 2-3 times a month).

There have been various criticisms of the suggested diet, including that it lacks certain micronutrients (vitamins and minerals), or has a suboptimal distribution of macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates and fats). Given these criticisms, and remembering that this is essentially a ‘one-size-fits-all’ diet (which are always, always going to have limitations), I think the key here for us as readers, is probably to avoid getting too bogged down in the details.

Remember too that these are general population guidelines – designed primarily to help governments, industry and large organisations shape their policies and future plans – and are therefore NOT necessarily right for us as unique individuals.

We are all different, and therefore we must learn to listen as much (if not more) to our own bodies as we do to external advice.

Having said that, many of us are interested in what steps we could potentially take towards a sustainable way of eating. Here are just a few pointers from the EAT-Lancet paper, which I think also align with more general healthy eating guidelines.

  • Include a few portions of healthy plant fats into your diet each day, such as olive oil and nuts and seeds.
  • Get familiar with cooking and enjoying more plant-based protein sources, such as legumes and pulses.
  • Choose minimally processed, whole grain sources of carbohydrates (such as oats, brown rice, buckwheat, millet etc.) over refined or processed alternatives, where possible. The same goes for potatoes.
  • Aim to have a minimum of 5 portions of fruit and veg a day (although I recommend aiming for even more if possible). Try to eat more vegetables than fruit. Be aware of seasonality
  • Try to get a rainbow of colours onto your plate, especially dark green leafy vegetables and those which are orange / red.
  • If you do eat meat, or other animal-based products (such as dairy, eggs, poultry etc.) consider consuming less overall (both in terms of portion size and frequency), but choose better quality – organic is a good starting point, but organic & regenerative may be even better. See below for some links to further information on this. It’s complicated!

The bigger picture

Whilst I think we do need to start (or indeed, continue) giving sustainability a thought when making our food choices, it is also important to remember that this is just one part of a much bigger environmental picture.

The dietary guidelines the EAT-Lancet paper outlines not necessarily give consideration to more localised agricultural concerns, such as seasonality, food miles, packaging, waste (not only in our own kitchens, but also on the farms and in shops) or animal feed and welfare (i.e., grass-fed vs. grain fed / organic or regenerative production). Nor does it necessarily consider the ethics of various farming practices, which is a big consideration for many.

Personally, I am also trying to be increasingly conscious of my other purchasing choices too – from minimising plastics, to recycling, choosing sustainable travel, fashion, energy and more. It is not just about food.

A pragmatic approach

I don’t know about you, but all of this can seem a rather daunting amount of information to process in amongst the busyness of our daily lives. I certainly don’t have all the answers, but I keep finding myself coming back to Barack Obama’s phrase ‘Better is Good’. Better is good, perfect is unachievable. I will just keep on trying to make incremental steps in the right direction.

So here are the 3 actions I am going to focus on for now.

  1. Focus more of my meals around fruits, vegetables, health plant-based fats and legumes, and where animal products are used, try to make them as sustainable as possible.
  2. Aim for improvement, not perfection – especially around minimising any food waste.
  3. Buy wisely – consciously support producers who are putting in the effort to make sustainability and soil health a priority.

The final word…

If you find the constant stream of new information regarding what we supposedly ‘should’ and ‘shouldn’t’ be eating quite wearisome – as I sometimes do – then perhaps remembering Michael Pollan’s wise quote is a reassuring and consistent backstop:

Eat real food. Mostly Plants. Not too much.

Sharing information

I wanted to leave you with a few resources that I have found particularly helpful or interesting in case you would like to find out more. This is by no means and exhaustive list, and I am sure there are lots more great resources available, but here’s a few to whet your appetite.

Books / resources

Videos

For a very moving account of this type of farming in action, do take a look at Alan Savory’s TED talk: watch here

Although this report questions some of the points made in the video: fcrn.org.uk/

And here is a great introductory video on the importance of soil health for our own health, and for the health of the planet: watch here

Ethical suppliers

Riverford Farm: riverford.co.uk
Riverford also has a great new blog, Wicked Leeks: wickedleeks.riverford.co.uk 

Consider joining a CSA scheme – which stands for ‘Community Supported Agriculture’. It is a movement gaining rapid popularity in the USA, but is started to gain ground here in the UK too.

Take a look at the website below for lots more information, and to find your nearest scheme: communitysupportedagriculture.org.uk


Buying Meat: The Questions to Ask

Buying Meat:
Questions to ask

We each approach life with a vastly different set of ideas, beliefs, concerns and expectations which guide our decisions. Respecting such differences in opinion is important in all walks of life, but I think it’s especially important when it comes to nutrition.

What is right for one person may be wholly wrong for another. I am, therefore, a strong advocate and supporter of personal choice – and this is especially true when it comes to considering the choice between whether or not you eat meat or other animal products.

There are many reasons why you may decide that you’d prefer to stick to a pescatarian, vegetarian or even vegan diet – and with careful planning, it is certainly possible to eat a well-balanced diet without any animal protein. If, however, like me you dochoose to eat meat, I think it is well worth spending a little time considering how you buy it, where it comes from and what the conditions were like for the animals involved. By doing so, you will not only help to bring mindfulness to your own nutrition, but you will also be able to make more conscious consumer choices – both for animal welfare and sustainability reasons (hopefully encouraging retailers to follow suit). It’s a win-win situation.

The tidily packaged meat we buy in supermarkets now is so far removed from its origin, it is easy to forget that it came from a living being at all. Picking up a packet of chicken breasts is no more challenging than picking up a bag of apples. This disconnect from the reality of meat production can lull us into a false sense of security, where we are not prompted to ask the questions that challenge unkind or unsustainable production methods. Retailers have made it easy to be unaware of the truth behind the meat we buy.

It is not all bad news though: there are some great initiatives afoot to lobby retailers and policy makers to mandate higher meat production standards, and at-a-glance logos on packaging (such as The Soil Association Organic or ‘Freedom Food’ / ‘RSPCA approved’ logos) to help us make quick and easy choices. Finding a brand or retailer you trust is key here. Few of us have the time to investigate every meat purchase in detail, but if you know your local farm shop or butchers only stocks high-quality meat, then the decisions become simpler. Yes, it may be a little more expensive, but in most cases, I sincerely believe that this higher price just reflects the true cost of ethical meat production. Cheap meat is, sadly, often cheap for a reason.

The questions I ask myself when sourcing and buying meat

1. Firstly, I ask myself – do I feel like eating meat today? Personally, I elect to eat red meat only once or twice a week (for cost, health and sustainability reasons), so I’ll often choose chicken or fish instead, or I’lI substitute these for good quality plant or dairy protein sources (I’m a great supporter of Meat-Free Monday). In all aspects of food sourcing and shopping, I aim to be a mindful, conscious consumer, so when buying fish, l’ll take a look at the Marine Stewardship Council to check the sustainability of my fish purchases.

2, I buy my meat from the local farm shop or butcher in favour of the supermarkets whenever possible. Quality really does matter, especially with meat: ‘buy less, buy better’ is my motto! Buy the best you can afford and be confident of good welfare conditions. Naturally, if you are able to buy organic meat, then more’s the better: organic farms don’t use fertilisers, pesticides or routine antibiotics and they ensure high levels of animal welfare. However, I do know this can sometimes be difficult as organic meat is not always readily available or its higher cost can present an added challenge to household budgets (especially if feeding a family), so if this is the case, try at least to look for higher-welfare, RSPCA-assured (‘Freedom Foods’), free-range / grass-fed meat where possible and consider using less familiar (less costly) cuts. I ask my supplier if I am not sure.

3. Keep in mind that processed, salted or cured meats are OK to enjoy occasionally, but I generally recommend sticking to unprocessed meat or fish for the most part.

If you’d like some more information on any of the topics discussed above, please take a look at the following websites:

I’m incredibly proud to be supporting the FARMS NOT FACTORIES campaign #TurnYourNoseUp

Farms Not Factories is a non-profit organisation working through film-making and campaigning to support the ‘food sovereignty’ movement by exposing the true costs of cheap meat from animal factories in order to inspire people to only buy meat from local, healthy, high welfare farms. Their long term vision is a world without animal factories and they work collaboratively with other groups who focus on other important areas of work – such as policy change, supporting producers and campaigning locally to provide content, support their work and spread a shared message through film.

Find out how you can get involved here: farmsnotfactories.org/

meat free mondays


Is Organic Food Worth It?

Wellbeing Article: Autumn Health by Amelia Freer

Is organic food
worth it?

Updated April 2020

In general, I am an advocate for organic food and farming for many reasons, ranging from sustainability to animal welfare and, of course, taste and potential nutritional benefits. But budget, availability and various other obstacles make eating a wholly organic diet nigh on impossible for almost everyone. So the most important point to make here is that it is better to eat and enjoy plenty of non-organic whole foods (fruits, vegetables, whole grains, proteins etc.) than to avoid them due to worries regarding their organic status.

Ultimately, it is my strongly held belief that it is the abundance of minimally processed whole foods in our diets that matters most, rather than whether they are all organic or not. You can certainly buy plenty of organic treats and sweets – but this does not automatically make them a healthier option.

However, I know that many people are increasingly choosing to buy organic, so in this article, I have tried to put together a list of products which you might decide are worth prioritising, and those which perhaps are less important, as well as (some of!) the reasons why.

Of course, there are many environmental, ethical and farming reasons why some people decide to buy organic produce – which is a whole other topic in itself – so here I am just going to focus on the nutrition and taste side of things. If you want more information on these topics, though, do take a look at the Soil Association website: http://www.soilassociation.org. For more discussion and resources on food sustainability, please do take a look at my article on the EAT-Lancet study

What is ‘organic’ anyway?

Organic farming as a term was first used in the 1940’s, to describe a holistic view of soil, crops, animals and society. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation now states that “organic agriculture is a holistic production management system which promotes and enhances agro-ecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles, and soil biological activity”.

Organic production can range from the way we manage our back gardens to huge high-tech agricultural enterprises. It may also include aquaculture, forestry, health & beauty and textiles. In the UK, this is often overseen by the Soil Association, who set various organic standards.

The EU also sets out legal requirements for organic production. The principles of organic farming ensure no use of synthetic pesticides, fertilisers, GMOs, hormones or routine antibiotics. However, some natural substances are approved for use as pesticides.

Fruit & Vegetables

Many people choose to buy organic fruit and vegetables for both health reasons and for taste. I have to admit that I really notice the taste difference between the produce that arrives weekly in my organic veg box and that which I buy in the supermarket. It’s fresher, far less plastic-wrapped, more diverse, and so often more delicious. Carrots and cucumbers are the real standouts for me, as well as cauliflowers that don’t turn to mush on cooking, spicy and interesting salad leaves, and really juicy tomatoes. But beyond the gastronomic benefits, there may also be some (albeit moderate) nutritional ones too.

According to a 2017 paper published in The Annual Review of Public Health, organically produced fruits and vegetables were found to have a slightly different nutritional profile than conventionally farmed produce. They found lower concentrations of protein and nitrate, but higher concentrations of certain micronutrients (including iron, magnesium, phosphorous, zinc and vitamins C) and in some cases, higher concentrations of phenols and flavonoids, some of may be of importance for human health (1).

Another study looking at over 300 research papers on organic vs. non-organic crops, concluded that the organic crops had significantly more phytonutrients (plant-based bioactive compounds, which are often antioxidant), but lower levels of pesticide residue and cadmium (a toxic heavy metal) (2). Cadmium is one of three heavy metals, the others being lead and mercury, which have a ‘maximum permitted contamination’ level in food, as set by the European Commission. It accumulates in the body, and can collect in the liver and kidneys. We do not need cadmium in our diets, so the less we consume, the better.

The latest edition of the annual EU report on pesticide residues in food (both conventional and organic) found just under 96% of 80,000 food samples tested fell within legally permitted levels. In other words, the vast, vast majority. We are lucky that we have stringent food safety standards for both organic, and conventionally produced foods, here in the UK, which make them both safe to eat.

While there is some understandable concern about the effects of consuming pesticide residue in our foods, it is unclear at present whether or not there are any long-term health consequences. Peeling, washing and cooking may help to reduce any potential exposure.

It is worth saying that even organic produce is not always completely free from pesticide residue. This is because there may be cross-contamination when nearby fields are sprayed, from food handling, packaging, storing or incorrect labelling.

THE BOTTOM LINE?

By all means, buy much of your fruit and veg organically, if this is an option available to you and sits within your budget. There may be some taste and minor nutritional benefits. And of course, it supports a more holistic approach to food production.

However, do not worry if this is not a realistic option. We are lucky that our food production here in the UK is well regulated, and safe to eat regardless of whether it is organic or not. It’s better to eat plenty of fruit and veg rather than avoiding it by worrying about whether it’s organic or not. Just wash it thoroughly before eating.

If you want to prioritise a few items to buy organically, then perhaps focus on those you eat the most of, rather than those you only eat occasionally. Signing up to an organic vegbox delivery scheme is often a cost effective option, too, as it tends to work out a bit cheaper than buying the equivalent products at the supermarket.

Dairy products

The choice on whether or not we consume dairy products is very much a personal one. I have written plenty more about this topic in my article Thinking About: Dairy.

If we do choose to consume dairy products, however, many people opt for organic. From a nutritional perspective, this has a couple of potential impacts. Organic milk may contain more healthy omega-3 fats, but it often also has considerably less of the essential minerals iodine and selenium than conventionally produced milk (3).

This is likely to be more related to the production systems (i.e., breeding, feeds, milking practices) rather than due to it being organic or not. In fact, pasture-fed animals, which are not necessarily ‘organic’, produce milk that is very similar to organic (4).

It is worth pointing out, however, that oily fish and plant oils, such as rapeseed, have much more omega-3 fat than milk – which is actually relatively poor source of these important nutrients, so the overall impact on our diets is fairly small.

Dairy products are a key source of iodine in the UK diet. Iodine is necessary for healthy infant development in pregnancy and for thyroid function. Therefore, it is important to make sure that you have a variety of iodine sources in your diet (particularly if you only consume organic dairy products if you avoid dairy altogether). For more information on iodine, please do take a look at this fact sheet.

THE BOTTOM LINE?

Dairy or not, organic or not, are both a personal choices. If you feel that the organic farming methods are perhaps kinder, or the uncertainty about residual chemicals (antibiotics, pesticides etc.) possibly found in some conventional milks is worrying, or you are swayed by the beneficial fat content, then go for organic milk and dairy products.

If you are more interested in maximising your iodine intake (perhaps you are a vegetarian, for example, and therefore do not get it from alternative sources such as meat or fish), then maybe conventional dairy products are better for you.

Meat

Although there is still a lot of research to be done in this area, a study published in 2016 systematically looked at all the research on organic vs. non-organic meat (5).

It concluded that organic meat contains slightly more of the healthy polyunsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 fats, but lower levels of saturated fats than non-organic meat. These effects, however, were small, and again were likely to be due to the fact that organic animals are raised with more access to outdoor foraging and grass, rather than the more restrictive grain feeding of non-organic animals.

As for dairy, more research is needed to assess whether any potentially undesirable chemicals (i.e., antibiotics, growth hormones, toxic metals and pesticides) sometimes found in conventionally raised animals, may have any harmful impact on us. There are a lot of scare stories about, but the science hasn’t made any clear conclusions just yet.

THE BOTTOM LINE?

From a nutrition perspective, it is likely that organic (or grass-fed) meat is perhaps a little healthier – in terms of the types of fat it contains – than non-organic meat. But these effects are marginal, so overall dietary balance is far more important to consider here. It might therefore be more a case of budget, taste and of course, animal welfare.

Of course, it is hard to consider organic vs. non-organic meat without giving consideration to animal welfare standards, which in the UK are higher for organically certified farms. This is the factor that primarily sways my decision making.

My approach these days, therefore, is to buy relatively little meat. I might eat poultry once or twice a week, and red meat perhaps only twice a month. But when I do, I will try to find high-quality, organic meat if possible. For more info on this, do see my article on Buying Meat: The questions to ask

References

(1) Brantsæter, A., Ydersbond, T., Hoppin, J., Haugen, M. and Meltzer, H., 2017. Organic Food in the Diet: Exposure and Health Implications. Annual Review of Public Health, 38(1), pp.295-313.

(2) Barański, M., Średnicka-Tober, D., Volakakis, N., Seal, C., Sanderson, R., Stewart, G.B. and et al. (2014) ‘Higher antioxidant and lower cadmium concentrations and lower incidence of pesticide residues in organically grown crops: A systematic literature review and meta-analyses’, British Journal of Nutrition, 112(05), pp. 794–811.

(3) Srednicka-Tober, D., Baranski, M., Seal, C., Sanderson, R., Benbrook, C., Steinshamn, H. et al. (2016) Higher PUFA and omega-3 PUFA, CLA, α-tocopherol and iron, but lower iodine and selenium concentrations in organic milk: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta- and Redundancy Analyses. British Journal of Nutrition. In press – Feb 2016.

(4) The Soil Association (2016) Organic vs Non-organic: A new evaluation of nutritional differences: Milk. Available at: http://www.soilassociation.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=511HdacUS80%3d&tabid=2300 (Accessed: 16 February 2016).

(5) Srednicka-Tober, D., Baranski, M., Sea, C., Sanderson, R., Benbrook, C., Steinshamn, H. et al. (2016) Composition differences between organic and conventional meat; a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Nutrition. In press – Feb 2016.